From Medieval Pasture to Royal Park
The Georgian and Regency Periods
The Reign of Queen Victoria
The Edwardian Period and the House of Windsor
The Royal Ballet School at White Lodge
The King’s Great New Park
Richmond Park was established in its current form by Charles I, who had brought his court to Richmond Palace in 1625 to escape an outbreak of plague in London. The land on the hill above Richmond was turned into a royal hunting ground for red and fallow deer. In 1637, Charles I enclosed the Park with high brick walls, while allowing pedestrians the right-of-way.
A ‘Shooting Box’ for the King
Commissioned in 1725 as a hunting lodge for George I (1660–1727), White Lodge was constructed over the period c1727 to 1729. The designs for the King’s ‘shooting box’ are attributed to a collaboration between the architect, Roger Morris and Henry Lord Herbert, 10th Earl of Pembroke. The King died shortly after work began, making George II (1683–1760) the first royal resident.
George Ludwig, Elector of Hanover (1660–1727) was crowned King George I of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. The first Hanoverian King, he heralded a new age for the British Monarchy. However, George missed his native Hanover, returning there frequently throughout his reign. He spoke very little English, making him unpopular with his subjects, and had a brusque, shy character. Despite this, he worked successfully within the principles of the 1688 Glorious Revolution, which had decreed the supremacy of parliament over the monarchy. Under his leadership, the Hanoverian succession was made secure in Great Britain.
George I’s personal life was troubled. He left his wife imprisoned in Germany as punishment for being unfaithful, and was accompanied to England by his two mistresses: a short, dumpy one, and another known as ‘the Maypole’, because she was so tall and thin – together, they were rudely nicknamed the ‘Elephant and Castle’, after an area in London. Prince George (the future George II) resented this treatment of his mother and the relationship between father and son deteriorated throughout George I’s reign.
George I had a passion for hunting and Richmond Park provided a rare opportunity to pursue deer within the reach of Kensington or St James’ Palaces.
George II and Henrietta Howard
White Lodge and Marble Hill House
George I died suddenly in the summer of 1727, so George II and Queen Caroline became the first royal occupants of White Lodge. In Twickenham nearby, Marble Hill House, a Palladian villa built between 1724 and 1729, was occupied by George II’s former mistress, the remarkable Henrietta Howard. Marble Hill House and White Lodge were built almost simultaneously and shared the same architects.
George II (1683–1760) resentfully waited to be king for many years while his father ruled. When he was finally crowned in 1727, it was to the music of Handel’s Zadok the Priest, composed especially for the coronation.
In 1705, George married Caroline of Ansbach. Despite his infidelities, he was devoted to his wife and they had eight children. His relationship with his eldest son, Frederick, Prince of Wales was as difficult and sour as that with his own father. Frederick was eventually banished from court in 1737.
Remembered as boorish and ill-tempered, George II nevertheless breathed new life into the Hanoverian court, and Kensington Palace became the glittering centre of court life. The chief pleasure of the royal party during the day was hunting. The King’s mistress, Henrietta Howard wrote to John Gay: ‘We hunt with great noice [sic], and violence, and have every day a very tolerable chance to have a neck broke.’ (British Museum Add. MSS) George II was, therefore, a frequent visitor to White Lodge following a day’s sport.
Sir Robert Walpole
Prime Minister and keen huntsman
Sir Robert Walpole (1676–1745), First Lord of the Treasury, was appointed Deputy Ranger of Richmond Park in 1727. His son, Lord Robert Walpole (1701–1751), who had been made Ranger, surrendered the privileges of his office to his father. Sir Robert’s instruction ‘to furnish the new Lodge in New Park’ in February 1728 suggests that Walpole regarded White Lodge as his own (Hewlings, 2009).
Sir Robert Walpole (1676–1745), First Lord of the Treasury, is recognised as Britain’s first Prime Minister (although the term was not officially used until 1905); he remained in office for 20 years, until 1742. This made his administration the longest in British History. From a Norfolk gentry family, Walpole was educated at Eton and Cambridge before becoming MP for Castle Rising.
Over his distinguished career, Walpole set a precedent for how best to establish an effective working relationship between the Crown and Parliament. Walpole was a close friend of Queen Caroline and had considerable personal influence with George II.
Walpole’s first marriage to Catherine Mordaunt was not a happy one. Richmond Park, therefore, also proved to be an ideal retreat where he could spend time with one of his numerous mistresses, Maria Skerrett. The political memoirist, Lord Hervey, described it as Walpole’s ‘bower of bliss’ (a mischievous reference to the Bower of Bliss episode in Spenser’s famous poem, The Faerie Queene (1590-96), see Hervey, 1848 ed).
Caroline of Ansbach
The Queen’s favourite residence
White Lodge was particularly favoured by Queen Caroline (1683–1737), the consort of George II. The oak and sweet chestnut tree-lined approach to the West front of the Lodge, known as ‘The Queen’s Ride’, is named after her.
Caroline, Princess of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Electoral Princess of Hanover (1683–1737), married the future George II in 1705. A committed Lutheran, she became involved in political manoeuvrings to ensure a Protestant succession to the British Crown. In 1714, the Elector of Hanover became King George I of Great Britain and Caroline moved to England as Princess of Wales.
On her husband’s accession to the throne in 1727, Queen Caroline revealed a great enthusiasm for gardening. She employed Charles Bridgeman to create extensive gardens for her summer residence, Richmond Lodge. The gardens included a number of exotic plants and trees including orange trees, pomegranates, nut trees, myrtles and bay trees. Caroline was a strong supporter of the new fashion for gardening in a more ‘natural’ style. Two buildings designed by William Kent were added to the landscape: a hermitage, and ‘Merlin’s cave’. Both were intended to promote the English identity of the new Hanoverian dynasty and are now encompassed by Kew Gardens.
English Palladian Villa
An ‘Arcadian’ vista
The view of Richmond Park to the West of White Lodge shows Pen Ponds in the distance, framed by trees. Possibly created for Princess Amelia, the Ponds were formerly gravel pits, and took their name from a nearby deer pen (Collenette, 1937). Seen from the Salon windows at White Lodge, the reflective water appears as the focal point of an ideal ‘Arcadian’ vista.
The Richmond Park affair
Princess Amelia Sophia Eleanora (1711–1786), the eldest unmarried daughter of George II, succeeded as Ranger of Richmond Park on Lord Robert Walpole’s death in 1751. The post brought her notoriety when she attempted to close the Park to the public in order to seek more privacy. Amelia made frequent use of White Lodge, although her main residence in the Park (1751-1761) was the neighbouring Old Lodge (Collenette, 1937).
Princess Amelia Sophia Eleanor (1711–1786) was described as ‘one of the oddest princesses that was ever known…’. She was said to have ‘her ears shut to flattery and her heart open to honesty’ as well as ‘honour, justice, good nature, sense, wit and resolution’ (Van der Kiste, 1997). At the age of 19 she was described as ‘very beautiful’ and was, reportedly, something of a flirt. She developed a particular friendship with the Duke of Grafton and would frequently go hunting with him, riding away from the rest of the party. At Windsor, their attendants lost them altogether and they did not return until long after dark.
Amelia enjoyed fishing and loved horses. Even when she was over 40 she was still capable of shocking the ‘good women’ at Hampton Court by attending chapel on Sunday ‘in riding clothes with a dog under her arm’ (Van der Kiste, 1997).
Building work at White Lodge
Enlargement and decoration
Princess Amelia spent nearly £2,000 (equivalent to around £180,000 today) completing and decorating the interiors of White Lodge between 1751–52. This included new plaster cornices, new doors and shutters, five marble chimneypieces and, most importantly, the principal cantilevered torsional Portland stone staircase. Two flanking wing pavilions for the house were also commissioned.
Richmond Park, 1754
Engraving of John Eyre’s map
Edward John Eyre’s map of Richmond Park was drawn up in September 1754. ‘New Lodge’ is identified in the South East corner of the map; this was the name by which White Lodge was originally known, to avoid confusion with the Park’s ‘Old Lodge’ (demolished by 1841). The two new curved (or ‘crescent’) wings of White Lodge are clearly illustrated.
John Stuart, Earl of Bute
A misunderstood politician
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (1713–1792) was appointed Ranger of the Park by George III in 1761 and took up residence at White Lodge following Princess Amelia’s departure. Said to have been tall, slim and very handsome, ‘Jack Boot’ was a teacher, mentor and close friend of George III, who frequented the Lodge. Bute served as Prime Minister from May 1762 to April 1763.
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (1713–1792) was deeply unpopular. As both a Scot and chief advisor to George III, he was the subject of considerable hatred and gossip. He was suspected of harbouring Jacobite sympathies and his influence always carried the suspicion of treachery. It was a slander that the learned and dour Bute did little to deserve. As well as being a misunderstood politician, Bute was passionate about books, botany and architecture. He made a very positive contribution to 18th century learning as a botanist, collector and student of natural history.
From 1747, with the support of Augusta, widow of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and later Queen Charlotte, consort of George III, he was instrumental in the establishment of the gardens at Kew. In 1784, Lord Bute presented Queen Charlotte with his privately printed Nine Volumes of Botanical Tables. Only nine copies were produced and the Queen declared herself to be ‘much flattered to be thought capable of so rational, beautiful and enticing Amusement’ (in her written acceptance of Bute’s dedication. See Lazarus & Pardoe, 2011).
Bute as Ranger of Richmond Park
The end of stag hunting for sport
Bute’s collaboration with the royal family at Kew extended to the management of Richmond Park. In 1761, repairs (both to the Park infrastructure and White Lodge itself) were carried out under King George III’s personal supervision at a cost of £6,000 (equivalent to around £500,000 today). The King also decreed an end to stag-hunting; henceforth the deer were, apart from their ornamental role, to be regarded as a source of venison rather than of sport.
Princess Caroline Matilda
A marriage alliance made at White Lodge
In 1768, Christian VII of Denmark visited George III at White Lodge. The eccentric King of England entertained the equally unstable King of Denmark as a prelude to Christian VII’s proposal of diplomatic marriage to George III’s youngest sister, Princess Caroline Matilda. Unfortunately, Christian VII of Denmark proved to be a most unpleasant husband.
‘...they are always at White Lodge on a Sunday...’
First reference to ‘White Lodge’
The first known reference to the house as ‘White Lodge’ was made in 1768. In her journal, Lady Mary Coke wrote on Sunday 24 July, ‘we return’d home by Richmond Park and went past both the Lodges, but saw nothing of their Majestys, th’o [sic] they are always at White Lodge on a Sunday, that the Gardens at Richmond may be open’ (Coke, 1889 ed.).
The Royal Family at Kew
The Royal Botanic Gardens
White Lodge was one of a network of royal palaces in the local area of Richmond and Kew, including Kew Palace, Richmond Lodge and ‘The White House’ (not to be confused with White Lodge). Lord Bute’s residency closely connects White Lodge to the creation of Kew Gardens at The White House. This link was maintained when George III and Queen Charlotte made The White House their country home in 1772.
White Lodge in disrepair
Neglect and dilapidation
It seems that White Lodge was left to moulder and decay during the 1780s. There are no recorded building works for this decade and it is not until 1791 that anything appears to have been done to halt the dilapidation. In his latter years Lord Bute may have been too preoccupied with his botanical studies to pay attention to the buildings.
George III in Richmond Park
Renovation and restoration
George III (1738–1820) made himself Ranger of Richmond Park following the death of Lord Bute in March 1792. White Lodge had fallen into a degree of disrepair and the King oversaw considerable improvements to both the Lodge and the Park. It was during the 1790s that the new gates and a lodge at the Richmond Gate were constructed.
A ‘middle class’ Prime Minister
In 1801, George III assigned White Lodge to Henry Addington, later Viscount Sidmouth, as a ‘grace and favour’ residence. Addington, who served as Prime Minister from 1801 to 1804, remained at the Lodge until his death in 1844. There, he entertained some of the most distinguished men of the age including William Pitt, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Sir Walter Scott and Viscount Horatio Nelson.
Henry Addington, first Viscount Sidmouth (1757–1844), was a major figure of early 19th century politics. He was born in 1757 to Anthony Addington, a physician, and his wife, Mary. The Addingtons belonged to the minor gentry. Educated at Oxford University, Addington trained as a lawyer before becoming a member of parliament in 1784. He was acclaimed for his abilities as a rhetorician and restored the prestige of the office of Speaker in the House of Commons.
Addington served as Prime Minister from 1801 to 1804, during which time the King granted him possession of White Lodge. Despite notable achievements in foreign policy, finance, and national defence, Addington’s government became increasingly vulnerable after the declaration of war on Napoleon in 1802. These anxieties turned politicians against Addington, who was belittled as ‘the Doctor’ on account of his comparatively middle-class background. However, achieving high office through his talents and despite his relatively modest origins, he marked a change in the social dynamics of British political life.
Queen Charlotte and the Princesses
A royal rendezvous
George III, accompanied by Queen Charlotte and the six Princesses (Charlotte, the Princess Royal, and the Princesses Augusta, Elizabeth, Mary, Sophia and Amelia), arranged to meet Addington and his family at White Lodge on 13 June 1801, eager to show them the splendidly renovated buildings, which were to become their new home.
‘Social spirit’ of Addington’s White Lodge
A valued and faithful servant
Henry Addington, his wife, Ursula Mary and their six children eventually moved into White Lodge on 15 October 1802. The extensive repairs and alterations made to White Lodge at the King’s own expense were a mark of his extreme favour. The eminent men and women who visited White Lodge during the Addingtons’ residency described it as a ‘hospitable house’, and ‘decorously gay’ with a ‘social spirit’.
William Pitt ‘the Younger’
A political rival
William Pitt ‘the Younger’ (1759–1806) served as Prime Minister immediately before and after Henry Addington. He was one of many notable statesmen to frequent White Lodge during Addington’s residency. As Chancellor of the Exchequer, Pitt visited twice in January 1803, to offer Addington help and guidance over the finances of Great Britain in the face of Napoleon’s renewed and continuing aggression.
A garden for White Lodge
In 1805, Humphry Repton (1752–1818), the great English landscape designer, was called in to transform the five-acre plot of land granted by the King into a private garden for White Lodge. Up until this date the house had sat directly in the Park, as befitted its original function as a hunting lodge, and had no gardens enclosed against the deer and grazing cattle.
Admiral Lord Nelson
Plotting the Battle of Trafalgar
Lord Horatio Nelson (1758–1805), visited White Lodge to dine as Addington’s guest on Tuesday 10 September 1805, just five days before he set sail for Cadiz, near Cape Trafalgar off the Spanish coast. In the dining room he plotted out his forthcoming naval campaign on a side-table, using the fruit and silver for ships, and writing on the cloth with his finger dipped in Port wine.
The Battle of Trafalgar
Nelson’s crowning and final victory
On 21 October 1805, the Battle of Trafalgar would destroy once and for all Napoleon’s chance of invading Britain. Tragically, in his hour of victory, Nelson was fatally wounded. At every level of society, the news of Nelson’s death was received as a personal grief, and at White Lodge the table in the dining room became a relic. The room is called the ‘Nelson Room’ to this day.
Addington made her Deputy Ranger
Princess Elizabeth (1770–1840), the third daughter of George III, appointed Addington as the Deputy Ranger of Richmond Park in 1813. The Princess herself was made the Ranger by the Prince Regent (later George IV) in May 1814. Elizabeth continued to hold the honorary post after her marriage to Prince Friedrich of Hesse-Homburg in 1818.
Duke of Wellington
Defeat of Napoleon
On 18 June 1815, Napoleon was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by a pan-European alliance led by the Duke of Wellington (1769–1852). Addington had a lengthy and continuous correspondence with the Duke who often visited White Lodge. When victory was announced, Addington declared ‘I will not rob myself one moment’s enjoyment of this glorious night’ (Pellew, 1947).
Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Playwright and politician
Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751–1816), the famous actor, playwright, and Manager of Drury Lane Theatre from 1776 to 1809, enjoyed a close friendship with Henry Addington. Sheridan was a frequent visitor at White Lodge in the years leading up to his death in July 1816.
Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751–1816), was born in Dublin, educated at Harrow, and, in 1770, moved with his family to Bath. There, Sheridan fell in love with Elizabeth Ann Linley, a strikingly beautiful young soprano. In order to avoid the unwanted attentions of a Welsh squire, Thomas Mathews of Llandaff, Elizabeth decided to take refuge in a French nunnery. Sheridan accompanied her to Lille and, after fighting two duels with Mathews, he married Elizabeth in 1773.
Sheridan turned to the theatre for a livelihood. He began to enjoy success as a playwright, known particularly for The Rivals (1775) and The School for Scandal (1777), which are considered to be among the greatest ‘comedy of manners’ plays written in English.
Shortly after the Drury Lane Theatre opened under Sheridan’s management in 1776, Sheridan entered Parliament as the ally of the Whig giant, Charles James Fox. Recognised as one of the most persuasive orators of his time, Sheridan was, however, considered an unreliable intriguer. Fox was livid when Sheridan offered support to Henry Addington’s Tory administration.
Sir Walter Scott
A Scottish gathering
A memorable and lively gathering took place at White Lodge on 24 May 1828. Henry Addington, Lord Sidmouth, invited a party of Scottish friends to meet Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832), the eminent Romantic novelist. Scott was a lifelong friend; he and Sidmouth are known to have corresponded throughout their adult lives and Scott occasionally stayed at White Lodge.
A new era
On William IV’s death in June 1837, Victoria became Queen of Great Britain and Ireland at the tender age of 18. Victoria would fondly recall many visits to White Lodge during the course of her life: not only did she install her favourite aunt there, followed by a cousin and later her son, but she also gave a great Prima Ballerina cause to visit White Lodge.
A folk song learnt at White Lodge
The words and tune of the folk song, ‘Poor Tom’, were recorded by a Mr Godfrey Arkwright in the 1901 edition of the Journal of the Folk-Song Society. His mother was the niece of Henry Addington, Lord Sidmouth. She had visited White Lodge in 1837, where Lady Sidmouth’s Scottish maid taught her the quaint old song.
Mary, Duchess of Gloucester
Death of Lord Sidmouth
Henry Addington, Lord Sidmouth, died at White Lodge aged 86 on 15 February 1844. The Lodge next passed to Queen Victoria’s favourite aunt, the last surviving child of George III, Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester (1776–1857). In November 1851, Queen Victoria appointed the elderly Princess Mary as Ranger of the Park, which was evidently still a desirable sinecure.
The Prince of Wales
Exam preparation at White Lodge
Edward, Prince of Wales (1841–1910) was installed at White Lodge with his tutors in the spring of 1858, as he prepared for a military exam. Queen Victoria somewhat bluntly described her eldest son: ‘his nose is becoming a true Coburg nose and begins to hang a little, but there remains, unfortunately, the want of a chin’ (Lee, 1927).
Seclusion at White Lodge
The profligate son
Prince Edward’s companions received strict instructions from the Queen not to ‘indulge in careless self-indulgent lounging ways’ such as slouching with their hands in their pockets. ‘Anything approaching a practical joke...should not be permitted’ (Anon, 1917). Lonely, and desperately bored by the reading he was made to do, young Edward made very little progress.
Queen Victoria’s paintings
of White Lodge and Richmond Park
On a visit to her son, Edward, Prince of Wales, in May 1858, Queen Victoria painted the view from the Drawing Room window at White Lodge. The image illustrates the close personal connection between Queen Victoria and the Lodge. A talented artist, Victoria was tutored by the landscape painter, William Leighton Leitch.
Victoria and Albert
Mourning the Duchess of Kent
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert stayed at White Lodge in 1861 following the death of the Queen’s mother, the Duchess of Kent. Victoria later recalled that she used to sit in the Long Gallery entrance hall ‘with Dearest Albert and look through dear Mama’s letters’ (Martin, 1879). In the same year, William Leighton Leitch painted a watercolour of two female figures in mourning walking in the garden at White Lodge.
The Teck Family
A long occupancy
The Queen next granted White Lodge to her cousin, Princess Mary Adelaide, wife of Francis, the Duke of Teck. The Tecks were to live there from 1869 until their deaths some 30 years later. The Duchess was no stranger to the district. She had been brought up at Cambridge Cottage on Kew Green, and was married at the Kew Parish Church in 1866.
The Duchess of Teck
Family life at White Lodge
In the 1870s, the Duchess of Teck’s diary is redolent of a quiet life at White Lodge. Such passages often recur as: ‘We had our tea on the lawn with all the children’ and ‘we hid the Easter eggs for [Princess] May in the corridor till nearly four, then into the garden with [her young brother] Francis and May. Sat out writing, playing with the chicks’ (Woodward, 1927).
Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck (1833–1897), was the granddaughter of George III. When she was four, her parents, Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, and Princess Augusta settled their family at Kew. A formidable figure, Mary Adelaide married Prince Francis of Teck in 1866. Their marriage was a volatile one.
The Duchess of Teck was particularly noted for her remarkable benevolence and countless philanthropic activities. She was a devout Anglican and was, in her prime, arguably the hardest working member of the royal family. Appeals and begging letters bombarded her daily at White Lodge. Her many charities included Dr Barnardo's, the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, the Royal Cambridge Asylum, the St John Ambulance Association, the Young Women's Christian Association, and a dozen or so London hospitals.
This association with good works and welfare was an official royal policy. It raised the prestige and reaffirmed the importance of the monarchy in a time when it was retiring from national politics.
The Duke of Teck
Interior designer and gardener
The Duke of Teck (1837–1900) was reputedly an excellent interior designer and a passionate gardener; he also enjoyed sketching family and friends. Pretty winding walks ending in rustic arbours or romantic dells were laid out, and under his daughter’s window, he planted an Italian rose garden. Trees were removed to afford an unimpeded view of Richmond Park.
The Parks Regulation Act, 1872
The Parks Regulation Act of 27 June 1872 set out ‘to protect from injury Royal parks’ and ‘to secure the public from molestation and annoyance while enjoying such parks’. Public access to Richmond Park was thus enshrined in law.
Duke of Wellington
Attends a ball at White Lodge
Arthur Wellesley, 2nd Duke of Wellington (1807–1884) was one of many distinguished guests to visit the Tecks at White Lodge. On 19 May 1873, Wellington addressed a letter to White Lodge, Richmond Park saying, ‘We accept with great pleasure your and the Duchess's kind invitation to a ball on the 18th June’ (Dupré Collection). The ball was held on the 58th anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo.
The future Queen Mary
Princess May is known to history as Queen Mary (1867–1953); the consort of George V had very fond memories of her childhood at White Lodge. The Tecks were kind and indulgent parents. The Duke called his only daughter, ‘dearest Pussy-cat’. In 1874, Queen Victoria described her as ‘very plain’. Her mother, however, observed that ‘her Mayflower’ was ‘quick and clever and musical’ (Pope-Hennessy, 2000).
A blissful childhood
‘She was no end of a romp’
As Thomas Frost recalled in The Chronicle, 11 May 1910, Princess May was a keen cricketer: ‘she’d fence with a bit of stick broken off from a tree, and whistle a tune as well as her brothers. I’ll tell you another secret. She used to play cricket. She’d first of all watch our boys play, and laugh and shout over the game; and when they’d gone she’d bring her brothers and get them to bowl to her.’
Princess May and the ballerina
Taglioni’s Dancing Class
The celebrated ballerina, Marie Taglioni, fled Paris during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870/1. She moved to Connaught Square in London, where she supported herself by teaching private dancing lessons. Among Taglioni’s pupils was Princess May, whom she also taught at White Lodge. For the rest of her life, May (later Queen Mary), remained proud that she had been taught to curtsey by the great ‘Madame Taglioni’.
Elizabeth of Austria-Hungary
‘Sissi’ visits White Lodge
The Empress Elizabeth of Austria-Hungary (1837–1898) stayed at White Lodge for the hunting season in the summer of 1874. As a young man, Francis Teck had served in the Austrian Army and had been a favourite both with the Emperor and Empress – now he and his wife were welcomed to White Lodge as old friends.
Henry Irving and Ellen Terry
Victorian celebrities at White Lodge
The Duchess of Teck’s diaries are illuminated by her encounters with various celebrities she gathered together at White Lodge. In 1881, she invited Sir Henry Irving and Ellen Terry, the famous Victorian actors, who had recently starred at the Lyceum Theatre as Hamlet and Ophelia in Shakespeare’s tragic play of Hamlet.
Financial ruin and scandal
The Tecks in exile
The extravagant lifestyle of The Duke and Duchess of Teck left them in financial crisis. It was well known among their friends that the family was relatively ‘poor’. Their debts were so considerable that in September 1885 they left England for a short exile in Italy and Austria. They returned once the ensuing scandal had died down.
Princess May’s 21st birthday
A gift from Richmond
Princess May celebrated her 21st birthday on 26 May 1888. She received jewellery from the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, the Princess of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh and many other relations. She was also the recipient of a special gift from the people of Richmond, ‘a most lovely Carriage’ in which she was photographed at White Lodge.
A simpler life at the Lodge
Limited attempts at ‘frugality’
Following the return of the Tecks to England in 1885, their lifestyle was necessarily simpler and less lavish than before, although attempts at frugality appear to have been limited. The Duchess herself had an insatiable passion for food and was popularly but fondly known as ‘Fat Mary’. She is reported to have needed two chairs when sitting out a dance.
A secluded setting
In Richmond Park
A watercolour of White Lodge painted in 1888 by R Richardson, portrays the peaceful, secluded setting of the Tecks’ family home. Magnificent magnolias were trained over the outer walls of the curved quadrant corridors.
Servants at White Lodge
A busy life ‘below stairs’
The Duke of Teck drew a sketch of one of the housemaids at White Lodge. It was inscribed: ‘An apparition! Good God what’s that? Anne the Housemade [sic] lighting the fire’. Despite the embarrassment of their recent exile due to debt, the Tecks continued to keep several coaches and horses, as well as a multitude of servants who worked hard to keep the estate running smoothly.
Assault in Richmond Park
A servant attacked
On 22 April 1890, Mr A E Adams, a servant at White Lodge, was attacked in Richmond Park by two ‘footpads’ [robbers or thieves who targeted pedestrian victims]. The Metropolitan Police insisted that because the incident took place on the private road leading to the Lodge, and not on the public footpath, they could not be held accountable for the safety of Mr Adams.
New Richmond Theatre
A royal outing
On 12 April 1890 the Morning Post reported: ‘The Duke of Cambridge, the Duke and Duchess of Teck, Prince Alexander and Princess Victoria [May] of Teck, and the Grand Duke and Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz were present at the new Richmond Theatre last evening, and witnessed the performance of “A Scrap of Paper”, in which Lady Monckton and Mr. Arthur Dacre took part.’
Celebrations at White Lodge
Silver Wedding Anniversary of the Tecks
The Silver Wedding celebrations for the Duke and Duchess of Teck took place in 1891. White Lodge had been renovated in honour of the anniversary. Two garden parties were given on the 12 and 16 June, at which a Children’s Orchestra played, sponsored by the Duchess. Among the many presents the Tecks received was the ‘loveliest of watch bracelets’ sent by Queen Victoria.
A tour of White Lodge, 1892
The Teck Family apartments
The Strand Magazine was a popular ‘Illustrated Monthly’, published in London. Volume VI (July-December 1893) included a lengthy and admiring article describing the splendid interiors of White Lodge, home of the royal Teck family. Written by Mary Spencer-Warren, the article was similar in tone to a celebrity magazine today. It was illustrated with many of the fine photographs taken in 1892 by Gunn & Stuart of Richmond.
Death of Prince Albert, Duke of Clarence
Tragedy for Princess May
Princess May had become engaged to Prince Albert, the heir presumptive to the throne in December 1891. Known as ‘Eddy’, the Prince died of pneumonia only a month later, on 14 January 1892, at the age of just 28.
Dowager Empress Frederick of Germany
The Dowager Empress Frederick of Germany (1840–1901), who was Queen Victoria’s eldest daughter known as ‘Vicky’, was invited to luncheon at White Lodge in March 1893. After the death of Prince Albert, Duke of Clarence, the previous year, matrimonial negotiations were again afoot for Princess May. She was to become engaged to the new heir presumptive, the future George V.
Another marriage proposal
Romance in Richmond Park
Prince George came to dinner at White Lodge on 2 May 1893. The following day the Duke and Duchess vacated the Lodge, leaving Princess May to wait upon the return of her suitor to seek her hand in marriage. However, all did not go as planned.
The wedding of Princess May
Display of gifts at White Lodge
Princess May married Prince George, Duke of York on 6 July 1893 at the Chapel Royal in St James’ Palace. A photograph taken in one of the crescent corridors at White Lodge shows the multitude of wedding presents sent to the couple. They were on private view to invited guests at White Lodge, and then put on display for the paying public at the Imperial Institute, until 2 September.
Princess May’s ‘charming retreat’
Birthplace of Edward VIII
The boudoir of Princess May was the room where she spent many days of her girlhood, and where, as a mother, she cradled her infant son. White was the prominent colour - white ceiling, white walls relieved with terra-cotta and a white centre in the oriental carpet. An article in The Graphic, 30 October 1897, declared it to be ‘the most interesting portion of White Lodge’.
The christening of Prince Edward
Four generations of British monarchs
For the birth of her first child in 1894, May went home to White Lodge to be with her mother. The baby, born on Midsummer’s Eve, was to become King Edward VIII (who reigned for only 11 months in 1936 before abdicating). His christening at White Lodge was a prestigious affair; the event was marked by remarkable photographs depicting four generations of British monarchs.
Two Princes in the garden
‘David and Bertie’
In August 1897, Princess May’s sons, the two Princes, were photographed in the garden at White Lodge. Prince Edward, known as ‘David’, wheeled a barrow holding Prince Albert, or ‘Bertie’, later King George VI. Both the Princes wore smocks and wide-brimmed hats.
Death of the Duchess of Teck
In April 1897, the Duchess of Teck underwent an emergency operation at White Lodge. Although she recovered, her overall state of health rapidly deteriorated and she was subject to prolonged fainting fits. She died five months later. Her husband, the Duke, survived until January 1900.
Mrs Eliza Emma Hartman
On ‘intimate terms’ with the King
In 1901, the new King Edward VII gave the use of the Lodge to a Mrs Eliza Emma Hartman, the widow of German-born James Hartmann. She was described variously in the press as an ‘American widow’ on ‘intimate terms’ with the King; ‘not an American who will occupy the Royal Residence’; an ‘Alsatian reputed to be very rich’ and as the ‘Chatelaine of White Lodge’. She had the Lodge lavishly redecorated.
Electricity reaches White Lodge
Horace Farquhar, Earl Farquhar (1844–1923), a financier, politician and courtier, occupied White Lodge as a ‘grace and favour’ resident from 1909–1923. The Farquhars set about installing all the modern conveniences. By spring 1910, 2500 yards of electric cable had been laid at the cost of £1,147 5s 6d (equivalent of around £65,460 today), bringing electricity to White Lodge.
New map of Richmond Park, 1909
Introducing motoring speed limits
The 1909 map drawn by Coryn de Vere marks out ‘carriage roads’ in yellow; these were increasingly used by ‘horseless carriages’ – the new-fangled motor car! The map also shows the new speed restriction and warns that: ‘No Motor Car or any other vehicle is allowed to proceed at a greater speed than 10 MILES AN HOUR.’
The Imperial Ballet at Richmond Theatre
Anna Pavlova dances ‘The Swan’
In January 1912, the famous ballerina, Anna Pavlova, and her partner, Laurent Novikoff, performed at Richmond Theatre with the members of the Company of the Imperial Ballet, St Petersburg. Many decades later, students of The Royal Ballet School would follow in Pavlova’s footsteps, dancing each summer at Richmond Theatre during the 1970s and 1980s.
To find out more about Anna Pavlova's visit: timeline.royalballetschool.org.uk/1900/item/29/
Richmond Park and the First World War
Top secret experiment on Pen Ponds
In the years before the First World War broke out in 1914, the Park had become a site of wildlife conservation, genteel residence and public recreation. The conflict brought cavalry training, a South African military hospital, women working on the Home Front and a top-secret military experiment on Pen Ponds. In 1917 areas were ploughed up for crops and garden allotments.
H G Wells and his ‘aerial ropeway’
Famous author’s wartime invention
In 1917, the prolific English writer and visionary, H G Wells, used Richmond Park to try out his latest invention, an ‘aerial ropeway’, for the war effort. This consisted of a series of ten-foot high wooden poles and half-mile lengths of ropeway which could, under cover of darkness, transport loads of up to ten tons an hour (carrying anything from rations to the wounded on stretchers).
Civilian Medal for bravery
In December 1922, Albert Waterfield, a Park Keeper in Richmond Park, was awarded the Empire Gallantry Medal by King George V. On 10 May 1921, he had been on duty in the early hours of the morning when he pursued and caught two armed men, both members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) trying to break into White Lodge.
The Duke and Duchess of York
Newly-weds at White Lodge
The Duke of York, the future George VI and his bride, Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon made their first home at White Lodge. The couple were married in Westminster Abbey on 26 April 1923. They first met at a ball given by the Farquhars in 1920. The Duke reputedly asked his equerry ‘who was that lovely girl you were talking to? Introduce me to her.’
No privacy for the Yorks
‘...hordes of sightseers’
White Lodge appeared to afford an idyllic retreat and the Duke and Duchess of York duly invested in extensive renovations to the house and grounds of their new home. The tennis court was installed for the Duke, c1923; an enthusiastic tennis player, he entered the Men’s Doubles at Wimbledon with Louis Greig in 1926, but they lost in the first round.
A second royal birth at White Lodge
On 13 August 1924, there was another royal birth at White Lodge. Prince Aleksander Pavlov Karadorevic was born to Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark and Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, in the same room as that in which Prince Edward of Wales had been born, 30 years earlier. A special photograph was taken after the christening, which also took place at White Lodge.
Final chapter as a royal residence
Two future Queens of Great Britain
HM Queen Elizabeth II was born on 21 April 1926 at 17 Bruton Street, London. She was photographed in the arms of her mother, the Duchess of York, on the steps of White Lodge. Her Majesty’s birth certificate gives the Lodge as her parents’ home address. Little did they know that their daughter would one day become the country’s longest-reigning monarch.
‘An impossible residence’
Departure of the Duke and Duchess
White Lodge proved to be too expensive and too public for the Duke and Duchess of York. A letter from their private secretary stated: ‘they find the White Lodge an impossible residence at the moment.’ It was ‘altogether too far from London’ and due to numerous sightseers they hardly dared ‘put their noses outside’ as all privacy had ‘ceased to exist’.
Lord and Lady Lee
New tenants of White Lodge
The King granted a life lease of White Lodge to Lord and Lady Lee of Fareham, which officially started on 7 November 1927. The Duke and Duchess of York moved to 145 Piccadilly early that year, taking with them a chandelier and several tapestries. Queen Mary had four stained glass panels from two of the windows moved to Buckingham Palace.
Sir Arthur Hamilton Lee
Collector and patron of art
Arthur Hamilton Lee, 1st Viscount Lee of Fareham (1868–1947) and his wife moved into White Lodge in April 1927. A great patron of the arts, Lee had accumulated a considerable personal collection of paintings. One of his conditions of moving to White Lodge was being free to accommodate his collection there. In 1932, he co-founded the Courtauld Institute of Art.
As well as being a patron of the arts, Viscount Lee was a great soldier statesman. Educated at Cheltenham College, he joined the Royal Artillery in 1888. In June 1889 he undertook a lengthy secret mission to gather information on the Russian fortifications at Vladivostok on the eve of the Russo-Japanese war. After several military postings and an assignment to the British Embassy in Washington, he entered politics and served as Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, and as First Lord of the Admiralty following the First World War.
Before moving to White Lodge, Lee and his wife lived at Chequers, a country house in Buckinghamshire. In 1917, they gave the estate and the entire contents of the house – including a library, historical papers and manuscripts, and a collection of Cromwellian portraits and artefacts - in trust to the nation to be used as an official residence and retreat of British Prime Ministers. Active in the art sales of the 1920s, he bequeathed his entire collection to the Courtauld Institute of Art, which he co-founded in 1932.
The Wall Street Crash
The Lees suffered financial difficulties following the great market crash of 1929. Their lease in perpetuity was passed back to the Crown and they negotiated a tenancy which would be renewed every twelve months. King George V and Queen Mary personally sent word that they were happy that Lord and Lady Lee were able to continue the tenancy of White Lodge.
Departure of the Lees
Public sale of furniture
When Lord and Lady Lee left White Lodge in 1938, the public sale of their furniture was recorded in the press: ‘One well remembers at the sale of Lord Lee’s furniture at the White Lodge after his departure, the butler standing at the door with a slightly sardonic air at the stream of visitors, most of whom had come to look rather than to buy.’ Even so, the Lees retained their remarkable collection of antiques.
Queen Mary at the ballet
Sadler’s Wells Theatre
In 1939, Queen Mary attended a charity gala performance of the Petipa-Tchaikovsky Imperial Russian ballet, The Sleeping Beauty, at London’s Sadler’s Wells Theatre. The Queen was presented with a bouquet by the youngest pupil from the Sadler’s Wells Ballet School. Eleven-year-old Beryl Groom, later known as Beryl Grey, went on to become a celebrated ballerina of The Royal Ballet.
Nora Reynolds Albertini
Widow and extravagant society hostess
At the beginning of World War II, White Lodge was rented by Mrs Nora Reynolds Albertini, the wife of an American railway millionaire, Stockwell Reynolds (who died in 1942), and sister of the film star, Reginald Denny. A well-known London hostess, she was a devout Catholic and created a chapel within the Lodge, as well as a billiards room and a small indoor swimming pool.
Marble bust of Princess Amelia
Lord Lee’s antique at White Lodge
A purchase receipt survives in Lord Lee’s archives for the ‘Bust of Princess Amelia...Delivered to Mrs Albertini 19 February 1940’, indicating that both she and Lord Lee shared an interest in the historical association of White Lodge with Princess Amelia. Due to the imminent threat from Nazi invasion, in June 1940 most of Lord Lee’s superb collection of antiques, Renaissance jewellery and medieval manuscripts were evacuated by sea to Canada.
Bomb decoys near White Lodge
While there are no records of damage to White Lodge, bombs did fall nearby. The Queen’s Ride was recorded as having been hit by four high explosive bombs on 10 October 1940, and Winston Churchill recorded in his diary on 10 April 1945: ‘a brisk canter in Richmond Park where I examined a large V2 [German missile] crater near White Lodge.’
Covert Operations in Richmond Park
‘The Duke of York inspects the ‘Phantom’ in Richmond Park 22 May 1941’. During the war, Pembroke Lodge was taken over by the ‘Phantom’ Regiment, officially the GHQ Liaison Regiment. This special reconnaissance unit was trained to provide specialist military information about the enemy for Higher Command, bypassing usual means of communication. Officers included the film star, Major David Niven.
Richmond Park research
Astronomical discovery of Cygnus A
The scientist James Stanley Hey, MBE (1909 – 2000) was engaged in wartime research on anti-aircraft radar. In February 1942 he deduced that solar flares were causing the signal interferences affecting radar stations along the South coast of England. ‘Using the aerials at his Army establishment at Richmond Park…Hey and his team surveyed the heavens. “A new and exciting discovery emerged”, Hey recalled:
The Royal Air Force at White Lodge
White Lodge is requisitioned
By August 1942 White Lodge had been requisitioned by the Air Ministry, probably to accommodate the crew who were needed to maintain the nearby ‘Starfish’ aerial bombardment decoy. The Royal Air Force made use of the basement floor, including the kitchen, scullery and pantry. Following victory in Europe in May 1945, Mrs Reynolds Albertini returned to White Lodge.
President of Yugoslavia
The marriage of Mrs Reynolds Albertini and Colonel James Veitch of the Coldstream Guards was reported in the Evening News on 12 April 1950. They continued to occupy White Lodge after the war, and hosted Marshal Tito there when he came to England on a state visit, March 1953. The Foreign Office agreed to Tito’s entourage being 29 strong, but let only 12 reside with him at White Lodge. For security reasons, Tito was not accommodated in a London hotel (Spehnjak, 2005).
Search for a new tenant
A new future for White Lodge
On 15 August 1953, Mrs Reynolds Veitch wrote once again to Winston Churchill, this time in order to ask him to use his influence to relieve her of the lease on White Lodge. There was a subsequent flurry of activity to find a new tenant – and the long-established Marler and Marler Estate Agency, in Knightsbridge, discreetly put the Crown property on the market.
Sadler’s Wells Ballet School
A new lease of life
On 15 July 1954, Mr Hillman of the Crown Lands Commission received a letter from Edmund H Trollope, a surveyor appointed by Mrs Reynolds Veitch. He sought permission to assign the lease of White Lodge to the Royal Opera House Ltd, who wished to use the property as a school for the Sadler’s Wells Ballet. He wrote: ‘I can think of no better use to which this magnificent house can be put …’
White Lodge becomes home to the School
Early days and a mishap!
During the Autumn Term of the new academic year 1955/6, the first cohort of students boarding at White Lodge had to travel to their daily lessons at the School's Colet Gardens site in Barons Court, as the Stable Block classrooms were not yet ready. Builders were also at work on some Attic bedrooms in the main villa of the Lodge, where an accidental fire broke out just after Christmas.
The Royal Ballet School
Awarding of a Royal Charter
On 9 October 1956, the School and its affiliated Companies were awarded a Royal Charter by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. In December, HRH The Princess Margaret became President of the newly named three-fold institution: The Royal Ballet Company, the Royal Ballet Touring Company (later Birmingham Royal Ballet) and The Royal Ballet School.
The grand opening
Dame Margot Fonteyn
White Lodge, now the home of The Royal Ballet School, was opened to the public on 31 July 1957 for the formal opening ceremony presided over by the prima ballerina, Dame Margot Fonteyn. White Lodge then remained open for two months with a celebratory public exhibition designed by the School’s Director, Arnold Haskell. It included ballet designs by Picasso, Bakst and Benois.
Princess Margaret at White Lodge
The Anna Pavlova ballet studio
Princess Margaret was a passionate supporter of the ballet, serving as President of The Royal Ballet School and Companies from 1956 until her death in 2002. Her first official visit to White Lodge was on 19 July 1957, when she opened the School’s first purpose-built ballet studio – named after the famous Russian ballerina, Anna Pavlova.
Click here to see more about the history of The Royal Ballet School
If you have enjoyed our White Lodge History Timeline and would like to find out more about the history of The Royal Ballet School and Companies, please visit:
The Royal Ballet School: White Lodge History Timeline
Our White Lodge History Timeline tells the story of this fine Grade I listed English Palladian villa, which lies at the heart of London’s magnificent Richmond Park. (White Lodge was first listed by Historic England, 10 March 1981: list entry 1250045.)
Commissioned in 1725 as a hunting lodge for George I, White Lodge remains part of the Crown Estate to this day. By moving through the Timeline, viewers will be able to trace how White Lodge was built; its architects, royal connections and occupants; how the interiors and grounds have changed over time, and finally how it came to be the home of one of the world’s leading ballet schools.
An ongoing project: The Timeline has been created by The Royal Ballet School to record the first three centuries of White Lodge’s remarkable history. The School has been privileged to occupy this unique place since 1955; as a working boarding school, however, it is unable to offer regular public access to the site. Through creating this illustrated on-line resource, the School aims to provide virtual access to the buildings and grounds – as well as fascinating archival material relating to the Lodge’s history. We hope you enjoy our White Lodge History Timeline, and that you will return to discover more as we develop it in future.
The Royal Ballet School’s White Lodge History Timeline is an ongoing project managed by The Royal Ballet School Special Collections. You can email us at: [email protected]
We would welcome any information that might enable us to develop the White Lodge History Timeline. Please be aware, however, that we are not usually able to enter into individual discussions concerning the ‘Timeline’ project.
Project editor and text for image captions: Anna Meadmore
Main text: Alice Higgins
Archival and image research and text: Allen Gilham
Additional research: Alice Higgins and Dr Robert Wood
Images preparation: Camilla Forti and Anna Meadmore
Data input and proofing: Camilla Forti
Project coordinator: Annalise Cunild
Design: Lee Rennie at tonicbox
Locations photography: Jacob Schulelewis, Brian Slater, Katie Davison
Daniel Hearsum, who has generously allowed us the use of material held in the Hearsum Collection to illustrate extensive sections of the Timeline, enabling these wonderful items to be enjoyed online, where they can be appreciated within their proper historical context.
The late Siân Busby, who researched and wrote the text for a White Lodge History Timeline, which was displayed in White Lodge Museum, The Royal Ballet School, from 2009–15. Her work has provided us with a valuable inspiration and starting point for this online resource.
The Royal Ballet School is extremely grateful that this vital work was made possible by generous donations from: Julia Farron, the Foyle Foundation, the Idlewild Trust and an anonymous donor.
Images have been drawn from a number of national collections. The Royal Ballet School is particularly grateful to the following organisations and individuals:
National Portrait Gallery
Orleans House Gallery
Royal Collection Trust
Victoria and Albert Museum, London
The Estates of Lord Sidmouth and The Duke of Wellington
©The Royal Ballet School 2018
All rights reserved
No part of this online resource may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without full acknowledgement of the copyright holders, except for permitted fair dealing under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
The Royal Ballet School has made all reasonable efforts to reach artists, photographers and/or copyright owners of images used in this online resource. It is prepared to pay fair and reasonable fees for any usage made without compensation agreement.
Bibliography and references
The Royal Ballet School extends grateful thanks to the many archivists, historians and collectors who have given their invaluable assistance with this project:
Primary Sources: (archival research by Allen Gilham):
The Royal Library and Royal Archives, Windsor
The Royal Photograph Collection, Windsor
The National Archives (United Kingdom), Kew
British Museum, Additional Manuscripts Collection (Henrietta Howard)
London Metropolitan Archives, City of London
Courtauld Institute of Art (Viscount Lee of Fareham Collection), Somerset House
Secondary Sources: (published material consulted by all contributors):
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Anon. (1917). The Private Life of King Edward VII (Prince of Wales 1841 – 1901) by a Member of the Royal Household. City unknown: Read Books, 2009.
Bennett, S. (2000). Five Centuries of Women and Gardens. London: National Portrait Gallery.
Bevan, I. (1954). Royal Performance: the Story of Royal Theatregoing. London: Hutchinson.
Bland, A. (1981). The Royal Ballet, the First 50 Years. London: Threshold/Doubleday.
Borman, T. (2010). King’s Mistress, Queen’s Servant, the Life and Times of Henrietta Howard. London: Vintage Books.
Broadwood, L.E. (1904). Journal of the Folk-Song Society, 5, pp. 275–276.
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Coke, M. (1889). The Letters and Journals of Lady Mary Coke. Vols. 1-4, 1756 – 1774. Edinburgh: David Douglas.
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Hervery, J. and Croker, J. (1848). Memoirs of the reign of George the Second, from his accession to the death of Queen Caroline. Bu John, Lord Hervey. Edited, from the original manuscript at Ickworth, the the Right Hon. John Wilson Crocker, LL.D. F.R.S. In Two Volumes. London John Murray, Albermarle Street.
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Lazarus, M. and Pardoe, H. (2009). Bute’s Botanical tables: dictated by Nature. Archives of Natural History, Volume 36(2). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 277-298.
Lee, S. (1925). King Edward VII: A Biography – Vol. 1. London: Macmillan.
Lee, S. (1927). King Edward VII: A Biography – Vol. 2. London: Macmillan.
Loudon, J.C. (ed.) (2013). The Landscape Gardening and Landscape Architecture of the late Humphry Repton, Esq. Cambridge: Cambridge Library Collection.
Martin, T. (1879). The Life of HRH The Prince Consort. 5 Vols. New York: Publisher unknown.
McKendry, M., Boxer, A. (ed.) (1983). Seven Hundred Years of English Cooking. Revised ed. London: Treasure Press.
Panton, K.J. (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Lanham MD: Scarecrow Press.
Pellew, G. (1847). The Life and Correspondence of the Right Honourable Henry Addington, First Viscount Sidmouth, Volume II. London: John Murray.
Ponsonby, F. (ed.) (1928). The Letters of the Empress Frederick. London: MacMillan.
Pope-Hennessey, J. (2000). Queen Mary 1867 – 1953. New ed. London: Phoenix Press.
Rabbitts, P.A. (2014). Richmond Park: From Medieval Pasture to Royal Park. Stroud: Amberley.
Sedgwick, R. (ed.) (1939). Letters from George III to Lord Bute, 1756-1766. London: Macmillan and Co.
Spencer-Warren, M. (1893). ‘White Lodge’. The Strand Magazine, An Illustrated Monthly, VI(July–September). pp. 229-239.
Thackeray, W.M. (1904). The English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century. London: MacMillan and Co.
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Ward Thompson, C. Adorning Nature: beauty and utility in Humphry Repton’s garden for White Lodge. Illustrated lecture, White Lodge Museum, 7 June 2012.
Warner, M. (1979). Queen Victoria’s Sketchbook. London: Macmillan.
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Wood, R. (2016). Unpublished research for the Hearsum Trust, the Friends of Richmond Park, and The Royal Ballet School, White Lodge in Richmond Park, London.
Woodcock, S. (1989). ‘Margaret Rolfe’s Memoirs of Marie Taglioni: Part 1’. Dance Research: The Journal of the Society for Dance Research, 7(1), pp. 3-19.
Woodward, K. (1927). Queen Mary: A Life and Intimate Study. London: Hutchinson.
Wundran, M., Pape, T. (2008) Andrea Palladio, Architect Between the Renaissance and the Baroque. Cologne: Taschen.
Antiquarian bookseller: www.sophiedupreautographs.com. (Sophie Dupré Collection: 2 sides 8vo, White Lodge, Richmond Park, 29 May, 1873). Correspondence Arthur Wellesley, 2nd Duke of Wellington.
Hearsum Collection website (2015): What’s in a Name? Features of Richmond Park. Max Lankester
The London Gazette online: www.thegazette.co.uk
Rachel Knowles online: regencyhistory.net/2014/02/queen-charlottes-cottage-regency
The Royal Parks Guild online: www.trpg.org.uk
Spehnjak, K. (2005). ‘Josip Broz Tito’s visit to Great Britain in 1953’. Review of Croatian History, 1(1), pp. 295-320.
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Taylor, Stephen, ‘Walpole, Robert, first earl of Orford (1676–1745)’.
Wickimedia/commons; Flickr; Creative Commons; Microcosm of London (images in the public domain)
The Wellington Archive, Stratfield Saye Estate, Archivist to the Duke of Wellington:
The Royal Ballet School’s White Lodge History Timeline is an ongoing project.
We would greatly welcome your comments on our White Lodge History Timeline. We would also like to hear about any other information or material that you know of, which relates to the story of this wonderful building. Please fill out the contact form below or you can email us. Please be aware, however, that we are normally unable to enter into individual discussions concerning the 'Timeline' project.